Understanding IPDE Concepts of Defensive Driving

IPDE stands for Identify, Predict, Decide, and Execute which is a defensive driving set of skills all drivers should have. When you’re driving there are various issues you would have to deal with proper technique. IPDE is the basic technique and strategy that helps you avoid potential dangers that could lead to accidents. Many unnecessary driving accidents happened as the driver not performing IPDE. A reputable driving school would cover IPDE sessions on their lessons but it’s great if you have an overview of the concept.


A driver should learn an identifying process where they need to observe the surrounding area for potential driving dangers and hazards. The observation requires a conscious action of scanning, assessing, and analyzing the driving environment to gain full control when driving. It’s a substantial mitigation process that help you tactically acknowledge the actual conditions of the surrounding area including specific features. These include the terrains, holes in the road, spatial conditions, objects position, the road lines, and many more. Identification majorly use senses of seeing and hearing and is the foundation of the principle.


Identifying the process provides you with a list of potential hazards and you should be able to predict what could possibly happen in multiple scenarios. You need to learn how to predict proper actions in response to those potential problems when driving. On the other hand, you should predict a particular driving style/action/behavior that can cause problems. For example, when the terrain is slippery, you would have to slow down and take a leaner maneuver through bends to keep your car on the track.


Prediction provides you with multiple scenarios including the worse driving problems so you can determine the best actions to deal with. The decisions require quick judgment and tactical thinking from the driver. When it comes to braking, the distance would keep shortening every millisecond that demands immediate response. Any delays would make big differences and these include fatal crashes. The right decisions save lives.


As the decisions have been made, you need to execute the actions immediately whether it’s manoeuvering, braking, accelerating, decelerating, steering, and so forth. You can manoeuver the vehicle to avoid static/slower objects, brake to stop it, or even accelerate your car to tactically avoid the moving objects. Sometimes, you need to decelerate before braking instead of performing sudden braking. These would fully depend on the actual situation that has been identified, predicted, and decided.

As you’ve seen above IPDE principles are designed and learned for defensive driving. These principles have been part of the basic driving skills every driver should comprehend. They’re inseparable as you can’t do the right action without good identification. You can learn IPDE through driving lessons but you’d need to keep your defensive driving skill sharp with practicing. In other words, once you’ve learned IPDE, you should embrace and activate these principles whenever and wherever you’re driving through the city or on a long road trip.